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The Ninja Dinosaur

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Post: #1
Cool Science
Let's start a general discussion about science, invention and innovation. I've seen such threads on other forums and they tend to be quite popular.

I'll start the discussion off with this zero emission car made by Tesla Motors: Tesla Motors: Model S Specs

Here's a pic of the car:
[Image: options_top-fixed-transparent.png]

Basically this is an electric car that can go every bit as fast as a gas powered car and has a range of about 300 miles (about 480 KM) on a single charge, depending on how you drive it of course, aggressive driving will eat up this charge faster then normal of course.
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The Golden One!
03-01-2014 12:40 AM
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Sebt Offline
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Post: #2
RE: Cool Science
I love song much things made by Elon Musk's teams and himself!

Also he modified an ET3 invention of super high speed... Hmm tube transport which is:

A car sized passenger capsules travel in 1.5m (5') diameter tubes on frictionless maglev. Air is permanently removed from the two-way tubes that are built along a travel route. Airlocks at stations allow transfer of capsules without admitting air. Linear electric motors accelerate the capsules, which then coast through the vacuum for the remainder of the trip using no additional power. Most of the energy is regenerated as the capsules slow down. ET3 can provide 50 times more transportation per kWh than electric cars or trains.

[Image: ET3cutaway2s-web.jpg]

Speed in initial ET3 systems is 600km/h (370 mph) for in state trips, and will be developed to 6,500 km/h (4,000 mph) for international travel that will allow passenger or cargo travel from New York to Beijing in 2 hours. ET3 is networked like freeways, except the capsules are automatically routed from origin to destination.

ET3 capsules weigh only 183 kg (400 lbs), yet like an automobile, can carry up to six people or 367 kg (800 lbs) of cargo. Compared to high speed rail, ET3 needs only 1/20th the material to build because the vehicles are so light. With automated passive switching, a pair of ET3 tubes can exceed the capacity of a 32 lane freeway. ET3 can be built for 1/10th the cost of High Speed Rail, or 1/4th the cost of a freeway.

[Image: 1et3.jpg]

But I've said before that Elon Musk modified that idea that was called the Hyperloop - let's see then how does Elon Musk's Hyperloop work?

"Hyperloop" is a future replacement for bullet trains; one that would get commuters from San Francisco to Los Angeles in as little as 30 minutes.
Hyperloop would double the gate-to-gate average speed of an aircraft over that distance, which is 560 km (350 miles). Musk has said Hyperloop is a non-scheduled service which leaves when you arrive, is immune to the weather and never crashes.

It's clear that he is proposing a system for subsonic transport. Travelling between downtown LA and downtown SF in 30 minutes gives a speed of about Mach 0.91. The same conclusion comes from working out the average speed of an aircraft. Gate-to-gate, the trip between LAX and SFO (337 miles) is listed by the airlines as one hour and 19 minutes, for an average speed of about 255 mph (410 km/h), or about Mach 0.33. Twice this is Mach 0.66.

The Hyperloop project sketch:
[Image: hyperloop0.jpg]

Business Insider may have been first with its suggestion that the Hyperloop is the old Rand Corporation's Very High Speed Transit System. Unfortunately, this system must run in a vacuum tunnel, which Musk has specifically ruled out. In addition, failure of the control computer would allow cars in the Rand system to collide, which seems to conflict with Musk's claim that the Hyperloop capsules can never crash. The same issue also argues against the popular suggestion that the Hyperloop is essentially a version of the ET3 maglev system.

Anyway the most interesting of Musk's statements is that the Hyperloop is a cross between the Concorde, a railgun, and an air hockey table. The Concorde was fast and revolutionary for personal transport, a railgun uses electromagnetic forces to transport objects at high speeds, and an air hockey table reduces sliding friction to next to nothing. These concepts all pull together to make the Hyperloop.

Diagram of a PTS system conceived as a possible modus operendi for the Hyperloop:
[Image: speculation-how-does-elon-musks-hyperloop-work-6.jpg]

It could be that the Hyperloop is essentially a pneumatic transport system (PTS) in the form of a closed tube that loops between Los Angeles and San Francisco. People ride in capsules that travel within the tube at around 1,000 km/h (620 mph), but the air in the tube also moves at that speed, so the capsules move with very little air drag. Such a system is simpler to design if the airflow is subsonic, which is in agreement with Musk's claims.

The airflow would lose energy against the inner walls of the tube, so those are perforated with tiny jets that are supplied with high pressure air, which act as do the jets on an air hockey table to dramatically reduce the friction. The separation between capsules makes an air cushion that prevents capsules from colliding in the tube, and the air jets on the inside of the tube levitate the capsules within the tube.

Because the air is moving at the same rate as are the capsules, the air can be kept moving by using the capsules as "paddles" to push the air along faster. The simplest way of doing this is to use the capsules as the armature of sections of the tube equipped to act as linear magnetic drive segments. That is, as railgun projectiles. If the capsules are forced to travel faster, so is the airflow. Power failure? Hook the drive units up backward to pull electric energy out of the PTS.

Another unusual aspect of the Hyperloop is that you leave right when you arrive. This is another role for a railgun. Imagine you arrive at the PTS station, and climb into a waiting capsule. In order to merge your capsule into the tube, it has to be moving at the same speed so it can be directed into the tube with a minimum of fuss. Since the capsules are going to work with electromagnetic drive units in any case, why not speed them up in the same manner? Of course, stopping at your destination is just the inverse of the merging process.

A serious concern in high-speed ground transportation is to keep the g-loads small enough for the general population. A plane taking off can generate about a g of acceleration, so let's take that as our limit. To accelerate a capsule to 1,000 km/h (620 mph) for insertion into the tube at one g of acceleration takes a track about 4.5 km (2.8 mi) in length, which is long, but not a substantial fraction of the tube's length.

When travelling at 1,000 km/h (620 mph), the tightest curve radius keeping accelerations at one g is about 9 km (5.6 mph). This is a more difficult limit to arrange, as it means the track of the tube must be very nearly straight. Building such a PTS on the space between the opposing lanes of a highway system won't work, save perhaps in very flat states. The biggest challenge is likely to be finding a place to put such a PTS.

The air between capsules acts as cushions to prevent two capsules from colliding within the tube. However, what happens in a catastrophic failure, such as total power loss? The first change is that the air hockey levitation of the capsules becomes ineffective. This can be prepared for by placing a series of small wheels on the sides of the capsules. The second change is that the drag force on the walls of the tube increases to its usual level, causing the air and the entrained capsules to come to a rather slow stop.
I support The Venus Project & Resource-Based Economy - The feasible plan to get rid of scarcity, poverty, and other incoming global issues.
(This post was last modified: 03-01-2014 09:26 PM by Sebt.)
03-01-2014 09:24 PM
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Seriously Unserious Offline
The Ninja Dinosaur

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Post: #3
RE: Cool Science
That's a very interesting system. One existing solution to also help prevent collisions could be to employ a collision detection system similar to what's used in the ALRT system built by Bombardier, and used in Vancouver under the name of Skytrain. Basically if one train detects another train on the track ahead of it is less then a certain distance it will automatically stop itself to avoid a collision. If the system fails all trains automatically stop for the same reason. Trains can be driven manually too in such cases so there is a manual back up to keep the network running if the failure will last too long. A system like that looks like it would be great for high demand lines along regular travel routes.

Of course personal cars and conventional busses/trains would still be needed to reach more remote places or to get to entry points to such a system, and in areas where such a system would not be practical due to geography, such as where I live in BC, which is full of mountain range after mountain range, starting with the Rockies to the east and continuing with an almost unbroken chain of ranges right up to the coast.

Also, there are other catastrophic failure scenarios that would need to be taken into account that could lead to the tubes themselves getting damaged or destroyed. In the event of a major earthquake, sections of tube could collapse, or even get ripped apart by a large enough movement in the ground, especially if the movement originates along a fault that the tubes must cross, the ground in a major quake could move by up to a meter or so. A volcanic eruption would be another hazard capable of damaging the tubes. Another is major storm surge on par with Hurricanes Sandy, Katrina or the typhoons that hit the Philippines or a Tsunami like what hit Japan and broke the Fukushima would also be capable of damaging the tubes if powerful enough. A would a major tornado, such as an F4 or 5 could also do this. Landslides like this one that occurred near Hope, BC would be another thing to consider, which could either move the tubes themselves or bury and crush sections of them.
[Image: 9556653781_0630667024_o.jpg]

Any of the above could compromise the integrity of the tubes and would have to have a disaster mitigation system in place to automatically detect such damage and stop all in motion capsules and even automatically engage a stopping system if the main system itself fails. Plus some sort of emergency escape system would also be needed for those trapped inside the tubes to get out of them in the event of a catastrophic failure that would take more then a few hours to fix.

Thanks for posting that, it's an interesting idea that presents many exciting possibilities and challenges to overcome to make it a workable system, but also challenges that are overcome-able too.
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The Golden One!
03-01-2014 10:53 PM
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Rikus Khan Offline
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Post: #4
RE: Cool Science
Mind if I throw a monkey wrench into your 'science' thread? I like the fringes of science. The edges of what we can even know or the theories that want to change what we believe. Not to say I believe them all or even like some of them, but I like to see the establishment of thought challenged for that is when we can truly learn something. Here is my first deposit:
Tectonic Plates are a Lie!

What do you think of this theory?
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09-01-2014 08:39 AM
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The Ninja Dinosaur

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Post: #5
RE: Cool Science
[Image: laughing-smiley-002.gif]
That's one's quite funny. I hope that guy was intending that theory as a joke.

Interestingly enough I studied couple of classes on Geology last summer. One of my profs used to work as a vulcanologist, dong field research on active volcanoes before becoming a professor. Her class covered the history of the Earth, going right back to the days when our blue bubble of life was a red fireball of magma, and on through the earliest forms of life, 2 snowball Earth ice ages where even the equator froze over, on into the explosion of life, followed by a mass extinction that made room for the age of dinosaurs which then went extinct making room mammals like us.

It's easy to see that there are plate boundaries just by looking in google maps, the trenches where plates are spreading appear as deep blue lines with ridges and seamounts surrounding them (basically mountains that are entirely underwater). Likewise you can also see the trenches that form where an oceanic plate is being pushed underneath another oceanic or continental plate.

Then there's all those high mountains like the Alps, the Himalayas, the Rockies and the Andes. My whole home province is just one mountain range after another. These mountains formed somehow. Yes many formed from volcanic activity, but the majority formed from the ground being crumpled up, that just doesn't happen if things are spreading, so there has to be a collision going on for that to happen, that's elementary physics, my dear Watson.

So yeah, even I can poke holes in that guy's theory so for his sake I hope he was just presenting it as a joke, otherwise he's seriously off his rocker. Tongue
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The Golden One!
09-01-2014 09:44 AM
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Mello Tonin Offline
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Post: #6
RE: Cool Science
Lol! Yeah, don't get me wrong I think it's a good idea to challenge what we currently believe especially if it is an idea that hasn't changed in a while. One thing I started to think about a long time ago was that it was silly to believe that the speed of light was the fastest anything can ever go. There have been plenty of speed barriers that we have been able to surpass most notably the speed barrier which at one time was thought impossible. I have to say though that plate tectonics is a pretty rock solid theory; pun intended, although not solid.

Getting back to the speed of light, I have heard it purposed that the Big Bang actually expanded initially at a speed that was faster than light, and later slowed as the environment cools. If this is true, then there must be a principal causal mode which allows for this to happen. Of course the Big Bang theory is something that could be debated in length. One speculative thought I've heard that I think makes a lot of sense and also solve the problem of perpetual entropy which I think is pretty short sighted, is that the universe we live in actually acts like a heartbeat. So while it may be expanding at this moment, it should reach a point where it will then contract. This would allow for the recycling that we see nature doing to continue instead of the universe just following entropy to the point it becomes infinitely large and nothing could exist because the particles that make everything up have essentially deteriorated into nothing. If I can find the show I watched where they talked about this theory about a universal heartbeat, I'll post a link to it.
09-01-2014 04:37 PM
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The Ninja Dinosaur

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Post: #7
RE: Cool Science
Also, when using any piece of knowledge, such as the Big Bang Theory, is that they are not always tested. Although any scientific idea must pass very rigorous testing to even get to be a theory, something like the big back theory is essentially based on plausible speculation, so we don't really know if that's what happened or if something else happened and if so, what it was.

On the other hand, plate tectonics theory has been rigorously tested and has extensive evidence to back it up so although both are scientific theories, and as such require extensive testing and proof, the big bang theory does not, as far as I know, have any conclusive proof of it's occurrence, at least non that we have found, whereas plate tectonics is not only rigorously tested but also backed up by an army of evidencke, so both would fall under different categories of theories.

Of course, in the future we may uncover additional information that will force us to re-evaluate both theories. I'd say it's highly likely that we will too. In fact it's safe to say that every single theory and scientific law we have will as some point have to be re-evaluated and either revised or even outright discarded as new information becomes available to us.

I have no doubt that things like the laws of physics, plate tectonics and many other pieces of our scientific body of knowledge will have changed, 100 or 200 years from now and scientists will look back as what we think is true and how we think the world and universe works today with the same amusement we look back at scientists form say 1000 years ago and their ideas like that the earth is flat like a dinner plate and if you travel too far in one direction you'll fall off the edge of the world.

I have no doubt someone discussing past scientific theories and our laws of physics and look back at things like the speed of light being the fastest speed possible with a similar sort of curious amusement as we look back as the flat earth theory of the past.

As long as current knowledge is challenged and ideas, both new and old, are constantly put to rigorous testing we will continuously be rewriting our laws of science and physics, and constantly be discarding theories and laws that turn out to be unworkable as new ideas come up and under careful scrutiny will turn out to be more true than the old ideas.

For now, things like the big bang theory and the theory of relativity are pretty damn good theories and the best we have to go by. Someday someone will prove them wrong and they'll have to be replaced with something better that better meets our new needs in light of new advances in knowledge.
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The Golden One!
10-01-2014 12:52 AM
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Rikus Khan Offline
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Post: #8
RE: Cool Science
Awesome, a couple good points of argument here .. and I intend to be argumentative!

Sebt, do we know the Earth is not expanding? Have we proven it? I know we cannot prove or disprove a negative. Let me ask it this way. Have any experiments been done to measure the rates of subduction and expansion linearly around the globe? If the rates of subduction and expansion are not equal, say over the course of 100 years minimum, then what other conclusion can we have? Could the Earth be expanding or contracting? I am not arguing about subduction or expansion. I think these have been clearly observed phenomenon. However, are we assuming they are equal? Is it possible long term (100-500 years) study might show us a result that differs from currently held "facts"?

Ahhh, the speed of light. Only fiction (Superman, Klingons, etc.) can break it .. right? In the early 80's Japanese scientists built a device a 1000 feet underground (in an abandoned mine under a mountain) to test for proton decay (the holy grail of the Grand Unified Theory which remains unproven due to key parts being currently untestable). In their 50,000 gallon stainless steel tank they were waiting for light signals to indicate the decay of protons. However, they were getting other light signals. They, it was found out, were coming from neutrinos. These little suckers have only been confirmed to come from stars (our Sun and supernovae close enough to test). The problem is that (at the time) it was believed neutrinos only lived for seconds. The Sun being 93,000,000 miles away, it takes roughly 9 minutes for light to get from the sun to the Earth. How can these little neutrinos get all that way if they live only a few seconds? I remember reading an article in the late 80's about how this has caused a stir in the scientific community. Neutrinos were defined as having no mass. Now, we are told they have mass, but it is very small even for sub-atomic particles. The speed of light is defined in the equation e = mc^2. This equation tells us that as you approach the speed of light your mass must necessarily increase. How can these little guys, with so close to 0 mass that we still can't measure them, be going faster than light? Something is broken with these competing theories or it is proving the GUT is farther away than we can even understand.

Also, just to argue some more, I think most scientists and science-minded people are stuck in at least two 'holes' of thought. Those being Uniformitarianism and Materialism. Most people, even those you love science, don't know these terms and how the concepts shape what they believe.

Uniformitarianism says that the processes or phenomenon we observe today haven't changed and that, geographically speaking, change comes very slowly. Localized changes can happen rapidly, but these are small areas of change. We have observed, the first part of science, pyroclastic flow's dramatically changing their environment. Mount Saint Helens carved through over 100 feet of solid rock to form a canyon while elsewhere depositing stratified layers of material nearly 600 feet deep (although we call what Mt. St. Helens had a lahar, mud flow, and not pyro flow) and devastated an area of 230 square miles. The USGS tells us of the Spokane Flood. It was a flood that effected over 15,000 square miles. it created 'ripples' in solid bedrock. These are like normal ripples we might see left by other moving water like tides and rivers, but they have a rather large distinction. They are 30 feet high, 300 feet apart and 2 miles long in places. In the area of effect we find the normal uniformitarian theory of canyons being formed due to a long time of little erosion being turned into a large erosion in a little time. The flow was suspected of being 10 times greater than all rivers on the earth now at 9.5 cubic miles (386 million cubic feet) per second of ice and water (the Amazon River is 6 million feet per second). It formed three 'rivers' as the 500 cubic miles of water flowed out of the broken ice damn. The largest of which was 20 miles across and 600 feet deep. A single super volcano going off would effect an even larger area. They are defined as having at least 1000 cubic kilometers of ejecta (240 cubic miles).

Materialism states that all observed phenomenon are the direct result or can be explained through a process relating to matter. Ok, I know there is no way to prove processes beyond materialism, that we know of. These processes are what most call super-natural. As long as they are thought to be or relegated into the super-natural then they must necessarily be beyond our understanding as the word 'super' means above or beyond. The whole philosophy of Existentialism came about due to the lack of Materialism's ability to explain all observed phenomenon. I cannot tell you what goes 'bump in the night', but I can tell you night bumps have been observed .. along with numerous other phenomenon that materialistic thinkers can only scoff at due to their lack of an ability to explain it.

I am not arguing for or against Uniformitarianism or Materialism. I am only pointing out that competing theories exist and are as logically and observationally consistent as others. However, often times these differing views are not considered science at all. To me, not considering all options is not science. The phenomenon is real; it is the explanations, the causes, we need to look at.
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10-01-2014 09:08 AM
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Seriously Unserious Offline
The Ninja Dinosaur

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Post: #9
RE: Cool Science
Quote:Uniformitarianism
You've obviously done your research here, that definition matches what I learned in the summer in my geology classes.

Quote:A single super volcano going off would effect an even larger area. They are defined as having at least 1000 cubic kilometers of ejecta (240 cubic miles).

That's true. The closest thing we have on record to a super volcano erupting are 2 eruptions of Mt. Krakatoa first in 535 and the later and but smaller more well known eruption in 1883.

The 535 eruption is now believed to have been the event that kicked off the dark ages, with major changes in religion, national borders changed, nations fell, widespread famine and disease all happening across the globe right after that, pretty much all at once. Tree rings from that period show a 15 year period of little or no growth, indicating a very poor growing season for trees during that time.

The 1883 eruption also had disastrous results, but not quite on the scale of the 535 eruption. That single eruption caused almost the entire island Krakatoa was on to collapse into a huge underwater caldera.

For those who aren't familiar with the term, a caldera is a form of volcanic crater that forms after a major eruption. How it forms is best described if you understand how a volcano is formed and what it's made of. Here's a diagram of a volcano:
[Image: VolcanoStructure.jpg]
This is a diagram of a type of volcano known as a Strata Volcano, which are characterized by their steep slopes, high elevations at the peak and explosive eruptions. Mt. St. Helens would be an example of a strata volcano. So what you see here is a chamber of molten rock at the base of the volcano known as a magma chamber. Magma is the molten rock below the earth's surface, when it reaches the surface it is then called lava. You will also see tubes reaching the surface, these are called vents and this is the main route for magma and gasses to reach the surface. In the case of a strata volcano the magma is very sticky and prone to hardening and blocking this vent, until pressures in the magma chamber finally build up to the point where it is able to explode out. When this happens, if the magma chamber is sufficiently emptied out, the volcanic mountain basically becomes hollow and can't support it's own weight any more so it collapses into its empty magma chamber, forming a huge crater, and that's what a caldera is and now it's formed.

Here's some more info on the history of Krakatoa.

Quote:Materialism
Your definition again matches mine. Despite many modern scientists insisting that there is nothing more to existence then the material universe and matter, spiritual beliefs have existed for much longer, pretty much for as long as we've had civilizations. Now, these people were more primitive then we are today in many respects, however in ancient Egypt, they were advanced enough to build structures that stand relatively undamaged to this day, namely the pyramids, a feat that even modern engineering has trouble replicating. They were able to do advanced brain surgery, surgeries that we've only just recently (within the last few decades) begun to rediscover how to do. We are a very materialistic society in many ways, the ancient Egyptians were a very spiritual society. Yet they could do things that our "advanced" materialistic, scientific society couldn't do until just a few decades ago.

Hmm, maybe there's something to this whole idea of spirituality, that we are more then just a physical body. It seems those ancients were smarter then we give them credit for, so maybe that were on to something there too.

I am both a scientific and a spiritual person. My viewpoint in terms of spirituality is that we're all spirits who each just happen to have a material body. My viewpoint in terms of the scientific method for discovery is that is a pretty good method, the best we currently have. Our physical sciences have experienced explosive growth as a result of applying this set of methods to testing new ideas.

It's a shame few of our social sciences have done the same, resulting in a huge gap in the development of the physical sciences and that of the social sciences. We are capable of building all sorts of mechanical and biochemical devices that can do all kinds of fantastic things, yet we don't know how our own behaviors work, or why people do the things they do or how to cure insane and non-optimum behaviors.

So what happens when we unleash all this technology form the physical sciences with their materialistic view on existence on a confused and crazy populace? It's not good, it's what we're getting here and now. Weapons that can destroy all life on earth, drugs that do more harm then good, drug addicts, the homeless, and the desperate.
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The Golden One!
10-01-2014 09:00 PM
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Mello Tonin Offline
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Post: #10
RE: Cool Science
(10-01-2014 09:08 AM)Rikus Khan Wrote:  Sebt, do we know the Earth is not expanding? Have we proven it?

I'm not sure if this has or hasn't, but I would hypothesize that because we are bombarded on a daily basis by space debris, then it is conceivable that the Earth is expanding, just ever so slightly every day. One thing to think about too is when there are super volcano eruptions (since I doubt a common volcano can produce the energy needed to eject matter out into space) do these produce enough energy to send materials off planet, and then does that material exceed the amount that constantly falls on the planet?

(10-01-2014 09:08 AM)Rikus Khan Wrote:  In the early 80's Japanese scientists built a device a 1000 feet underground ... to test for proton decay...they were getting other light signals. They, it was found out, were coming from neutrinos... it was believed neutrinos only lived for seconds. The Sun being 93,000,000 miles away...How can these little neutrinos get all that way if they live only a few seconds?

Maybe we were wrong to think they only exist for a few seconds? I'm not sure if this has been studied. The idea of Neutrinos traveling faster than light has been disproven, and from what I remember of the last time I heard something on this (covered on Science Friday with Ira Flatow) the team that was testing this last had false data they interpreted as Neutrinos traveling faster than light, but instead it was a faulty fiber optic cable.

There is another particle which is still theoretical called Takyons which are theorized to have a negative mass which would allow them to negate the impediment of infinite mass to reach/pass the speed of light. No one has proven the existence of these particles though.

(10-01-2014 09:08 AM)Rikus Khan Wrote:  Also, just to argue some more, I think most scientists and science-minded people are stuck in at least two 'holes' of thought. Those being Uniformitarianism and Materialism.

I would have to say that I don't think either of these ways of thinking are useful when it comes to science. Both limit your perception and your ability to think outside the box which is often where some of the best discoveries come from.

(10-01-2014 09:00 PM)Seriously Unserious Wrote:  It's a shame few of our social sciences have done the same, resulting in a huge gap in the development of the physical sciences and that of the social sciences.

While I agree that we have more knowledge of the physical world than we do human behaviors, I think we do have a good idea of how a lot of our social behaviors are governed through genetics and environmental conditioning. Unfortunately, I believe that undesirable behavioral tendencies are the most attractive to those who do study these.

Also, behavioral and social studies seem to me to be something that most do not care to know or understand. This is because I think a lot of people would rather believe that a certain people is or does a certain thing because they are different or insufficient either religiously, politically, racily, or economically. If we lump everyone into 'human behavior' then that makes us all the same, which in essence is what I believe we are with some minor insignificant differences.
(This post was last modified: 11-01-2014 02:51 AM by Mello Tonin.)
11-01-2014 02:48 AM
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Post: #11
RE: Cool Science
Mellow Tonin Wrote:I'm not sure if this has or hasn't, but I would hypothesize that because we are bombarded on a daily basis by space debris, then it is conceivable that the Earth is expanding, just ever so slightly every day. One thing to think about too is when there are super volcano eruptions (since I doubt a common volcano can produce the energy needed to eject matter out into space) do these produce enough energy to send materials off planet, and then does that material exceed the amount that constantly falls on the planet?

That would require further research to determine if that can happen. The key factor here is can a volcano produce sufficient energy to launch any materials at escape velocity? and if so, how much material can a volcano so launch? Anything less then escape velocity would get pulled back by our gravity and reenter the planet again. There is quite a bit of space debris being added to our planet continuously. Super volcano eruptions are exceedingly rare so in all likelihood, wouldn't eject enough materials to overcome the new materials entering earth's system.

Rikus Khan Wrote:In the early 80's Japanese scientists built a device a 1000 feet underground ... to test for proton decay...they were getting other light signals. They, it was found out, were coming from neutrinos... it was believed neutrinos only lived for seconds. The Sun being 93,000,000 miles away...How can these little neutrinos get all that way if they live only a few seconds?

That's one possibility. Mellow's mention of takyons is another interesting possibility. Of course, there is also the workaround of the light speed limit by not traveling in linear motion, but in "jumps", by generating something along the lines of artificial worm holes that can move us much faster then normal because we're not traveling in a line, but rather a series of disconnected points.

Mellow Tonin Wrote:Also, behavioral and social studies seem to me to be something that most do not care to know or understand. This is because I think a lot of people would rather believe that a certain people is or does a certain thing because they are different or insufficient either religiously, politically, racily, or economically. If we lump everyone into 'human behavior' then that makes us all the same, which in essence is what I believe we are with some minor insignificant differences.
I find people to be very different from one another. While we all share certain fundamental similarities, we are also each unique individuals, no 2 humans being alike, not even "identical" twins.

We are each shaped by our environment, genetics, and experiences, in addition to each having a unique basic personality that is completely independent all external factors.

Psychiatry and Psychology both unfortunately follow the modern materialistic viewpoint that we are all just a collection of chemicals, a body, and nothing else. They completely discount even the possibility of the spirit.

There is actually a reason why one person, will behave irrationally in a particular situation, while another will not. There are also ways to cure the irrational person of that irrational behavior, and it's not Psychiatry, which just uses their deadly drugs, or Psychology, which tries to tell a person "what's wrong with him/her" which, based on what I've seen, only irritates most people. There is another alternative to the above mentions mental health sciences, but I leave it to you to research the options. Wink
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The Golden One!
11-01-2014 03:30 AM
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Sebt Offline
The Evil Admin
Evil Admins

Posts: 1.567
Joined: Aug 2013
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Post: #12
RE: Cool Science
Have you guys ever hear about Onewheel, "the self balancing electric skateboard"?

This is video...




...and here we have Kickstarter campaign.
http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/4422...skateboard

IMO for many young people this could even replace any transportation units like bus or car if that would be a little faster and would climb up higher traffic damps. Anyway they mention about levitating board from Back to the Future movie, I always dreamed about that kind of "leviboard", levitating is one of the most amazing force in the universe. Smile
I support The Venus Project & Resource-Based Economy - The feasible plan to get rid of scarcity, poverty, and other incoming global issues.
(This post was last modified: 15-01-2014 04:53 PM by Sebt.)
14-01-2014 03:39 PM
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Rikus Khan Offline
Antroot Farmer

Posts: 94
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Post: #13
RE: Cool Science
Awesome-dope-pimpin'-da bomb-badass-supercalifragilisticexpialidocious-cool baby!
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14-01-2014 10:18 PM
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Seriously Unserious Offline
The Ninja Dinosaur

Posts: 1.607
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Post: #14
RE: Cool Science
^What he said^

Quote: levitating is one of the most amazing force in the universe.
Yup Smile

Here's some more levitation for you:


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The Golden One!
15-01-2014 12:27 AM
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Mello Tonin Offline
Guru O' Mello

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Post: #15
RE: Cool Science
Oh no!?! Chris Angel in a science thread...What kind of sorcery is this?

Back to levitation, check these out. All different methods of levitating objects...









And my favorite...



17-01-2014 11:30 PM
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